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Merkle Tree

A Merkle tree, also known as a hash tree, is a hash-based data structure that allows a large amount of data to be efficiently verified. The structure groups data in pairs; these pairs are then hashed together to create a new hash, and this process is continued until there is a final root. This root, referred to as the Merkle root, can be used as cryptographic proof that some of the constituent data has not been tampered with. Merkle trees are used in blockchains to encode and represent transaction data within blocks, allowing participants to verify transactions efficiently.