Proof of stake

PPCoin, Peer-to-Peer Crypto-Currency with Proof-of-Stake

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A peer-to-peer crypto-currency design derived from Satoshi Nakamoto’s Bitcoin. Proof-of-stake replaces proof-of-work to provide most of the network security. Under this hybrid design proof-of-work mainly provides initial minting and is largely non-essential in the long run. Security level of the network is not dependent on energy consumption in the long term thus providing an energy-efficient […]

Proof of Stake Velocity Building the Social Currency of the Digital Age

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Proof of Stake Velocity (PoSV) is proposed as an alternative to Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS) to secure the peer-to-peer network and confirm transactions of Reddcoin, a cryptocurrency created specifi- cally to facilitate social interactions in the digital age. PoSV is designed to encourage both ownership (Stake) and activity (Velocity) which […]

Nxt Whitepaper

Bitcoin has proven that a peer-to-peer electronic cash system can indeed work and fulfill payments processing without requiring trust or a central mint. However, for an entire electronic economy to be based on a fully decentralized, peer-to-peer solution, it must be able to do the follow- ing: process transactions securely, quickly and efficiently, at the […]

Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPOS)

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This paper introduces a new implementation of proof of stake that can validate transactions in seconds while providing greater security in a shorter period of time than all existing proof of stake systems. In the time it takes Bitcoin to produce a single block a DPOS system can have your transaction verified by 20% of […]

Distributed Consensus from Proof of Stake is Impossible

Proof-of-stake is frequently proposed as a mechanism for distributed consensus in non-Bitcoin cryptocurrencies (altcoins). However, this idea appears to be fundamentally flawed. We explore the history and motivation leading to Bitcoin’s distributed consensus mechanism, which evades a impossibility result, and demonstrate that proof of stake does not work as a replacement