Proof of stake

PPCoin, Peer-to-Peer Crypto-Currency with Proof-of-Stake


A peer-to-peer crypto-currency design derived from Satoshi Nakamoto’s Bitcoin. Proof-of-stake replaces proof-of-work to provide most of the network security. Under this hybrid design proof-of-work mainly provides initial minting and is largely non-essential in the long run. Security level of the network is not dependent on energy consumption in the long term thus providing an energy-efficient […]

Proof of Stake Velocity Building the Social Currency of the Digital Age


Proof of Stake Velocity (PoSV) is proposed as an alternative to Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS) to secure the peer-to-peer network and confirm transactions of Reddcoin, a cryptocurrency created specifi- cally to facilitate social interactions in the digital age. PoSV is designed to encourage both ownership (Stake) and activity (Velocity) which […]

Nxt Whitepaper

Bitcoin has proven that a peer-to-peer electronic cash system can indeed work and fulfill payments processing without requiring trust or a central mint. However, for an entire electronic economy to be based on a fully decentralized, peer-to-peer solution, it must be able to do the follow- ing: process transactions securely, quickly and efficiently, at the […]

Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPOS)


This paper introduces a new implementation of proof of stake that can validate transactions in seconds while providing greater security in a shorter period of time than all existing proof of stake systems. In the time it takes Bitcoin to produce a single block a DPOS system can have your transaction verified by 20% of […]

Distributed Consensus from Proof of Stake is Impossible

Proof-of-stake is frequently proposed as a mechanism for distributed consensus in non-Bitcoin cryptocurrencies (altcoins). However, this idea appears to be fundamentally flawed. We explore the history and motivation leading to Bitcoin’s distributed consensus mechanism, which evades a impossibility result, and demonstrate that proof of stake does not work as a replacement